UN Security Council Permanent Members And World Order In 2000s


UN Security Council
UN Security Council

Characteristics of UN Security Council

UN Security Council is a crucial global institution responsible for maintaining peace and security in the world. The UN Security has five permanent member states, namely the United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, China, and Russia. These five countries, also known as the P5, have a significant impact on world order in the 21st century. This article will examine the role of the UNSC permanent members in shaping the world order in the 2000s.

Peace and Security

One of the critical contributions of the UNSC permanent members to world order in the 2000s was the maintenance of international peace and security. Given their veto power, the P5 were responsible for authorizing or preventing the use of force against any state that posed a threat to peace and security. For instance, the UNSC permanent members took the lead in the war against terrorism following the September 11 attacks. Notably, the US and the UK launched a military offensive against Afghanistan, with the backing of other UNSC members, including China and Russia.

Human Rights

Another significant contribution of the UNSC permanent members to world order in the 2000s was the promotion of human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. During this period, the P5 used their veto power to promote initiatives that sought to protect human rights and democracy, while preventing measures that could lead to human rights abuses or undermine international justice. For example, the UNSC permanent members referred the Syrian conflict to the International Criminal Court to hold accountable perpetrators of war crimes and crimes against humanity.


Despite their significant contributions, the UNSC permanent members have faced criticism for their actions and inactions in the 2000s. Some critics argue that the P5 have been inconsistent in their approach to international law and human rights. For instance, China and Russia have regularly vetoed measures against their allies, such as Syria, arguing that these measures would undermine the sovereignty and stability of those states. Similarly, the US and the UK have been criticized for their military interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan, which violated international law and led to significant human rights abuses.

UN Security Council
UN Security Council

UN Security Council And Africa on World Order In 2000s

The United Nations Security Council is responsible for ensuring international peace and security. However, in the 2000s, its failure to effectively address conflicts in Africa raised questions about its effectiveness. The Council’s handling of the Darfur crisis and its slow response to the crisis in Somalia highlighted the limitations of its mandate.


Africa’s marginalization in the UN Security Council was also a major issue in the 2000s. Africa was under-represented in the Council, and its member states were often ignored in decision-making processes. This contributed to the ineffectiveness of the Council in addressing African conflicts. The African Union (AU) also played a key role in this period by calling for the reform of the Security Council to ensure regional representation and influence in decision-making.

Limitations and Challenges

Overall, the UN Security handling of African conflicts in the 2000s was characterized by limitations and challenges. The Council’s failure to address crises in countries like Sudan and Somalia and Africa’s marginalization in decision-making processes highlighted the need for reform to increase African representation in the Council. By the end of the decade, there were calls for more inclusive and representative UN Security Council that could better address African issues and promote peace and order in the region.

Exploring The Contribution Of African Countries To World Peace

The promotion of peace is paramount in today’s interconnected and globalized world. While it is often the case that Africa is portrayed by the media as a continent plagued by conflict, it is important to recognize the substantial contributions African countries have made towards global peace. This essay aims to explore and highlight the various ways in which African nations have contributed to fostering peace and stability on a global scale.

Peacekeeping Missions

African countries have actively participated in United Nations peacekeeping missions, demonstrating their commitment to global peace. For instance, countries like Ethiopia, Rwanda, and Nigeria have sent troops to conflict zones, working alongside other nations to maintain stability and protect vulnerable populations. These efforts have been crucial in curbing violence and mitigating the impact of conflicts.

Diplomatic Mediation

African countries have played a key role in facilitating dialogue and mediating conflicts in different regions of the world. Ghana, for example, has been instrumental in mediating disputes in West Africa, notably the Liberian and Sierra Leonean civil wars. This proactive diplomatic engagement has helped to de-escalate tensions and find peaceful resolutions to long-standing conflicts.

Contributions to Peacebuilding

African countries have actively engaged in peacebuilding initiatives across the globe. By providing financial support, technical expertise, and sharing best practices, African nations have effectively contributed to post-conflict reconstruction efforts. For instance, South Africa’s transition from apartheid to democracy serves as an inspiration to other nations, demonstrating the importance of truth, reconciliation, and inclusion to establish lasting peace.

Regional Integration

African countries have worked towards regional integration as a means to foster peace and cooperation. The African Union (AU), established in 2002, has played a crucial role in promoting peace and security across the continent. AU-led initiatives like the Peace and Security Council have been effective in addressing conflicts and promoting peaceful resolutions through dialogue and negotiation.

Support for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons

African countries have shown great compassion and commitment in providing support to refugees fleeing conflict zones. Nations like Uganda, Ethiopia, and Kenya have opened their doors to refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), offering them protection, shelter, and access to essential services. By doing so, African countries have demonstrated their commitment to addressing the root causes of conflicts and alleviating the suffering of affected populations.

Countering Extremism and Terrorism

African countries have been at the forefront of combating extremism and terrorism on the continent. Nations such as Nigeria, Kenya, and Somalia have faced significant challenges from extremist groups but have consistently displayed resilience in their efforts to combat these threats. Their collaborative approach in sharing intelligence, conducting joint military operations, and implementing preventive measures has been crucial in maintaining peace and stability.

Economic Cooperation for Peace

African countries have recognized the link between economic development and peace. By promoting inclusive growth and economic cooperation, nations like Rwanda and Ethiopia have successfully fostered social cohesion and reduced the likelihood of conflicts emerging from economic disparities. Investments in infrastructure, trade facilitation, and regional economic communities have all contributed to long-term peace and stability.

Promotion of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment

African countries have made significant strides in promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment, recognizing the importance of inclusivity in achieving sustainable peace. Countries like Rwanda and Liberia have championed the representation of women in politics, peace negotiations, and security sectors. This recognition and active inclusion of women in decision-making roles contribute to more holistic and sustainable peace processes.

Role in Climate Change Diplomacy

African countries have taken a leading role in climate change diplomacy and advocating for global environmental solutions. Recognizing the link between environmental degradation, resource scarcity, and conflict, African nations have consistently called for international cooperation and sustainable development practices. By emphasizing the importance of ecological stability, African countries contribute to global peace by addressing the root causes of conflict.

Contrary to popular misconceptions, African countries have made significant contributions to world peace. Through active participation in peacekeeping missions, diplomatic mediations, peacebuilding initiatives, regional integration, and numerous other endeavors, African nations have proven their commitment to global stability time and again. Recognizing and acknowledging these contributions is essential to dispelling bias and promoting a more accurate understanding of Africa’s role in shaping a peaceful world.

UN security Council
UN security Council

The Contribution of European Countries To World Peace

European countries have indisputably played a pivotal role in promoting and upholding world peace throughout history. From initiating institutions and agreements promoting cooperation to actively mediating in conflicts, European nations have consistently demonstrated their commitment to global stability. This essay aims to examine the contributions made by European countries to world peace, focusing on their role in the establishment of international organizations, promotion of diplomacy, provision of humanitarian aid, and participation in peacekeeping operations.

Founding International Organizations

European countries have played a crucial part in the establishment and sustenance of various international organizations dedicated to the pursuit of global peace. Examples include the United Nations (UN), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Through their leadership and contributions, European nations have significantly shaped these institutions by pushing for cooperative decision-making, conflict resolution mechanisms, and the protection of human rights.

Promotion of Diplomacy

European countries have consistently sought diplomatic solutions to conflicts, acting as intermediaries and facilitators. Mediation efforts led by European nations have proven successful in the resolution of numerous conflicts worldwide. Initiatives such as the Dayton Accords in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland, and the Oslo Accords between Israel and Palestine, among others, epitomize European nations’ commitment to diplomacy as an effective means of resolving disputes peacefully.

Humanitarian Aid

European countries have been at the forefront of providing financial, material, and logistical assistance during times of crisis and conflict. Their contributions to global humanitarian aid, including disaster relief, food assistance, and healthcare provisions, have helped stabilize regions affected by political strife and natural disasters. European countries have established networks for emergency responses, ensuring quick and effective aid delivery in times of need.

Peacekeeping Operations

European countries have actively participated in peacekeeping operations around the world, undertaking the responsibility of maintaining stability in conflict zones. Contributions from European states to peace missions under the auspices of the UN, EU, and NATO have been instrumental in preventing the escalation of conflicts and facilitating the rebuilding of war-torn societies. Examples of European peacekeeping engagement can be seen in the Balkans, Africa, and the Middle East.

Normative Power and Democracy Promotion

European countries have been promoters and defenders of democratic values and human rights on the global stage. Through diplomatic engagement, development assistance, and trade policies, Europe has exerted normative power, encouraging democratic governance and supporting transitions to democracy in various regions. By providing technical assistance, election monitoring, and democratic institution-building, European nations have actively contributed to advancing peace and stability.

Conflict Prevention and Resolution through Regional Cooperation

Regional cooperation in Europe has played a vital role in preventing conflicts and fostering peaceful resolutions. Institutions such as the European Union have brought nations together, facilitating dialogue and negotiation to overcome historical animosities and prevent conflicts from escalating. The EU’s enlargement policy, which promotes democratic reforms and reconciliation, has significantly contributed to stability and peace-building efforts in the continent.

Restructuring Post-Conflict Societies and Peacebuilding

European countries have demonstrated unparalleled expertise in post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding processes. Through financial aid, institutional support, and capacity-building initiatives, they have helped war-ravaged societies rebuild and transition towards sustainable peace. The European experience with reconciliation and economic integration, as evident in the process of European integration itself, has been instructive in assisting other regions seeking to overcome deep-rooted conflicts.

Defense Cooperation and Arms Control

European countries have actively engaged in defense cooperation and arms control, aimed at reducing conflicts and maintaining peace. Initiatives such as the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) highlight Europe’s commitment to disarmament and non-proliferation efforts, contributing to global stability.

European countries have made substantial contributions to world peace through their efforts in founding and strengthening international organizations, promoting diplomacy, providing humanitarian aid, participating in peacekeeping operations, and advancing normative power and democracy. Their commitment to conflict prevention, post-conflict restructuring, and arms control has further solidified their significant role in maintaining global stability. As Europe continues to address new and complex challenges, its contributions to world.

UN security Council
UN security Council

Conclusion on UN Security Council

In conclusion, the UNSC permanent members have played a critical role in shaping world order in the 2000s through their contributions to international peace and security, human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. However, these contributions have been subject to criticism and debate, with some arguing that the P5 have been inconsistent in their approach to these issues. To maintain their relevance and credibility, the UNSC permanent members must address these criticisms, while continuing to work together to promote a stable and peaceful world.

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